What is Lymphoma Symptoms? Prevention Lymphatic Leukemia Causes, Treatments Immune system Cancer
Welcome to my channel health for you Symptoms of Lymphoma Ignored by Women and Men Here are some key points about lymphoma. More detail and supporting information is in the body of this video. Lymphoma is cancer that develops in the lymph nodes and lymphatic system. The two main types of lymphoma are non-Hodgkin's (about 90% of cases) and Hodgkin's (about 10%). The main symptom is usually enlargement of lymph nodes that does not go away (as it does after infection). There are an estimated 761,659 people living with, or in remission from, lymphoma in the US. For Hodgkin's lymphoma, an estimated 177,526 people are living with the disease or are in remission. For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, an estimated 584,133 people are living with the disease or are in remission.
There are around 79,990 new cases of lymphoma diagnosed in the US each year (9,190 cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma, 70,800 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). Lymphoma cannot be prevented, but survival rates after treatment are good. What is lymphoma? Lymphoma is cancer of the lymph system (or lymphatic system), which is part of our immunity.
It is characterized by the formation of solid tumors in the immune system.The cancer affects immune cells called lymphocytes, which are white blood cells. The lymphatic system is a system of vessels that branch back from virtually all our tissues to drain excess fluids and present foreign material to the lymph nodes. Statistics from the US National Cancer Institute estimate that there are nearly 20 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma for every 100,000 people in the American population. Hodgkin's lymphoma, meanwhile, is relatively rare, with around three cases in every 100,000 people. About 90% of lymphomas are the non-Hodgkin's type while about 10% are Hodgkin's. Cancer is a group of over 100 diseases, all of which start with the growth of abnormal cells. Instead of dying in the normal cell life cycle, cancerous cells continue to divide into new abnormal cells, and grow out of control.
Lymphatic cancers are classified by the type of immune cells affected. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, B-cells and T-cells are affected - both being types of lymphocyte white blood cell with special roles in immunity. In the US, B-cell lymphomas are much more common than T-cell ones. In Hodgkin's lymphoma, the cancer cells are usually an abnormal type of B lymphocyte, named Reed-Sternberg cells. There are many subtypes of Hodgkin's lymphoma, typed by differences seen under the microscope - but a very high percentage of cases are classed as "classic" Hodgkin's. What are The Types of lymphoma? There are many different types of lymphoma depending on the type of lymphatic cells affected. Lymphoma is a form of cancer that affects the immune system - specifically, it is a cancer of immune cells called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.
There are two broad types of lymphoma and many subtypes. The two types of lymphoma are described as: Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's. Lymphoma can occur at any age but is the most common cancer in young people. It is often very treatable, and most people live for a long time after being diagnosed.
Use this page for comprehensive and easy-to-follow information about lymphoma - both non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Types of lymphoma Hodgkin's lymphoma can occur at any age, affects more men than women and the majority will be completely cured. Hodgkin's lymphoma is diagnosed when a special type of cell, the Reed-Sternberg cell, is seen under the microscope.5 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma accounts for all the other types of lymphoma. These can be high grade or low grade and the treatment and prognosis varies. What Are main Causes of lymphoma? For most cancers, researchers are still trying to understand how they are caused. The same is true for lymphoma - doctors do not know what causes it, although it is more likely to occur in certain people. Medical researchers have identified certain risk factors that make lymphoma more likely, although they often do not understand why Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma • Age - most non-Hodgkin lymphomas are in people 60 years of age and over • Sex - there are different rates of different types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma across the sexes • Ethnicity and location - in the US, African-Americans and Asian-Americans are less prone than white Americans, and the disease is more common in developed nations of the world • Chemicals and radiation - some chemicals used in agriculture have been linked, as has nuclear radiation exposure • Immune deficiency - for example, caused by HIV infection or in organ transplantation • Autoimmune disease, in which the immune system attacks the body's own cells • Infection - certain viral and bacterial infections increase the risk.
The Helicobacter Infection has been implicated, as has the Epstein Barr Virus (the virus that causes glandular fever) Hodgkin's lymphoma • Infectious mono-nucleosis - infection with Epstein-Barr virus • Age - two specific groups are most affected: typically people in their 20s, and people over the age of 55 years • Sex - slightly more common in men • Location - most common in the US, Canada and northern Europe; least common in Asia • Family - if a sibling has the condition, the risk is slightly higher, and very high if there is an identical twin • Affluence - people from higher socioeconomic status are at greater risk • HIV infection Treatments and prevention of Lymphoma A number of treatment options are used against lymphoma, many of which are common to other types of cancer. While statis-tics cannot predict the success of an individual person's treatment plan, which depends on numerous factors, including the stage of the cancer, the figures do show good overall success rates in beating lymphoma • More than two-thirds of people diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma will survive for five years • The five-year survival rate is even higher for the rarer Hodgkin's lymphoma, at just over 85%. Radiotherapy, or radiation therapy, involves directing a carefully focused beam of high-energy X-rays onto lymphomas, there-by destroying the cancerous cells. Immuno-therapy is the use of biological drug therapies that boost the immune system or provide artificial versions of normal parts of the immune system. Again, the aim is to kill cancer cells or slow their growth. Some drugs are mono-clonal anti-bodies - manmade immune proteins - and several of these drugs are available against lymphoma. For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, other biological drugs may be tried in some cases, or after other treatments have failed.
These include interferon, and the immuno-modulating agents thali-domide and lenali-domide. A small number of lymphoma cases are treated by stem cell transplantation. This is a process that allows high-dose chemotherapy, and sometimes high-dose radiotherapy, to be given in cases that have not responded to standard treatment. High-dose treatment would usually cause unacceptable bone-marrow side-effects, but the stem cell transplant given after treatment restores damaged bone marrow. Infusion of blood-forming stem cells means that this function is not lost, and new blood cells can still be created.
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