AIDS is caused by infection with a virus called the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 or HIV 1. This virus has an outer envelope, or membrane covered in spikes made of the proteins gp120 and gp41. Just below is a layer of protein called the matrix. A protein coat or capsid covers the components needed for replication--3 enzymes called reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease and 2 strands of ribonucleic acid or RNA, which carry genetic information. HIV 1 infects cells of the immune system, such as helper T cells and macrophages, which are critical to the body’s defense against viral invasion and infection. The proteins gp120 and gp41 on the surface of the virus called attach to receptors on the surface of the target cell. The HIV RNA and enzymes enter the target cell through a microtubule.
As the virus enters the target cell, it leaves its membrane behind as part of the cellular membrane. The viral enzyme reverse transcriptase creates a sequence of viral DNA—which is compatible with human genetic material—from the viral RNA. The viral RNA is then degraded and the viral DNA is then copied into double stranded viral DNA. The virus’s genetic information, now in the form of double-stranded DNA, moves to the host cell nucleus. The host DNA is split and the viral genome is inserted into it through the action of the viral protein, integrase. The host cell converts the HIV genes into RNA, which exits the nucleus and becomes a blueprint for new viral proteins and enzymes. These, with copies of HIV genetic material, form new viral particles. They bud from the cell surface, with an envelope formed from the host cell membrane.
As many as 10 billion HIV virus particles are produced a day in an infected person.
10 early signs you need to get an HIV test as soon as possible HIV is one of the primer killer diseases in Africa and all over the world. If you know its early symptoms, you can get…Views: 263 By: Gina Kennedy
I was diagnosed with HIV in 1991 -- December 1991 here in Houston, Texas, at the University of Houston. I was a college student, and I had received a phone call from a girlfriend of…Views: 80 618 By: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
A lot of people have made the assumption, a lot of gay men have made the assumption, that because we have ARVs or as we call them in this country highly active antiretrovirals, that…Views: 12 098 By: AIDSvideos
[Siamak Hariri, Hariri Pontarini Architects Founder speaks] Casey House has always had this sense of embracing you with care so this embrace around this courtyard this building that…Views: 837 By: Infrastructure Ontario
So, what can we do to reduce viral reservoirs? There is something that is now very well documented, you mentioned the Visconti study, there are other studies on treating acute infections,…Views: 233 By: Virochannel
R new cases of hiv. the very first time i had sex. I was 14.Reporter: and that's hen major smith says he contracted hiv from his 28-year-old boyfriend i started having night sweats.…Views: 197 By: WDSU News