Chapter 10 Diet and Health
Today we will be exploring Chapter 10 Diet and Health. We will focus on five different subtopics: Cancer, Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular Disease, Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoporosis. Nutrition and Chronic Disease: What does it mean to be healthy? Not only is the absence of disease or infirmity it is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Disease: Disease is defined as the impairment of the normal state of as living animal or one of its parts. Disease can be characterized by two things, acute and chronic.
Acute meaning short-lived. Chronic meaning slow onset and long duration. Nutrition Informatics: Nutrition Informatics is when the healthcare system moves away from paper systems to electronic this allows dietitians to use new tools and opportunities for management of chronic diseases. Health Disparities: An example relating to health disparities: The rate of cancer among African Americans is 10% higher than among Caucasians. Other determinants are population, social, demographic, environmental, and geographic attributes.
Obesity and Chronic Diseases: Obesity is now widely recognized as a major public problem. Through proper weight management, good health habits, and the right amount of physical activity a healthy lifestyle can be achieved. Chronic Diseases: Here are major chronic diseases in the US. We have Coronary Heart Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome. Genetics: There us a relationship between our genetic makeup and disease. DNA is made of subunits called nucleotides.
Diet influences gene expression and the making of proteins. Cardiovascular Disease: Defined as an abnormal condition characterized by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels. Is also the leading cause of death in the United States and Canada. Lifestyle changes and medical advances have led to significant fight against CVD. Though for some this disease can be inherited.
Here is a diagram of some components which make up the cardiovascular system. Here we have the Heart and Blood Vessels, Veins, Arteries, Capillaries. All together they pump and circulate blood throughout the body. Atherosclerosis: Which is the hardening of the arteries due to the plaque build up along the walls of the arteries. Which is also the case of coronary heart disease. Deposits called plaque accumulate along the artery walls. The arteries lose their elasticity and their ability to expand and contract, thereby restricting blood.
As we continue to talk about Atherosclerosis. Once enough plaque has accumulated along the arterial walls. The artery is vulnerable to plaque rupture and blockage by blood clots. Plaque buildup begins when excess lipid particles collect beneath the walls that line an artery called endothelial cells or endothelium. They can be damaged by high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Cholesterol and Atherosclerosis: With this disease high blood cholesterol can form other issues.
For example: Hypercholesterolemia which is the presence of greater than normal amounts of cholesterol in the blood. Another thing to watch out for with Atherosclerosis is inflammation because it can cause and infection. Atherosclerosis Risk Factors: Some risk factors with this disease are as shown. We have High Blood Pressure, High Blood Cholesterol, Cigarette Smoking, Diabetes, Overweight, and Physical inactivity. Examples of risk factors that are out of your control: Age, Family History, and Genetic History. Ways to prevent Cardiovascular Disease: Just like most diseases there are ways to prevent them. One example: Balancing calorie intake and physical activity which helps maintain a healthy body.
Also consume a diet rich in fruits and vegatables, choose whole-grain high-fiber foods, consume fish, especially oily fish, at least twice a week, and minimize your intake of beverages and foods that contain added sugars. Another example of how to prevent Cardiovascular disease: Are to choose and prepare foods with little or no salt. If you consume alcohol, do so in moderation, when you eat food that is prepared outside of the home, follow the AHA's diet and lifestyle recommendations.
What is Hypertension: Hypertension is a condition where one’s blood flows through blood vessels at a greater level than usual. Occurs when the force of blood pressure is pumping through your arteries too strong. High Blood pressure usually comes from when you’re just waking up in the morning, after physical activities, and the most common one, stress. What factors lead to Hypertension? Common causes of hypertension are things such as : Stress, Obesity, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco Use, High Sodium diets, and also Age. Risk Factors for Hypertension: Some may experience hypertension because of their genetic makeup.
One’s risk for hypertension increases when there has been a family history of it. Hypertension can create a thickening of the heart muscle. The major most common risk factors of hypertension are: Heart Attack, Stroke, and Kidney Failure. Genetics also play a key role in one's risk of experiencing effects of high blood pressure. Dietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing Hypertension: When dieting, one should avoid foods that are rich in fats, sodium, and cholesterol, and should have more intake of foods with nutrients, proteins, and fibers to reduce risks of hypertension. What is Cancer?: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. It is defined as a disease in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.
Tumors: Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors are not cancerous while malignant tumors are cancerous. Cells from malignant tumors can break away and spread through the bloodstream to other sites and form more tumors. This is known as metastasis. How cancer develops? Cancer develops in a multistage process that can take many years. There are three phases of development: Initiation, which occurs when something alters a cells' genetic structure.
Promotion, a reversible stage which occurs when a chemical or other factor encourages initiated cells to become active. And also Progression, which occurs when promoted cells multiply and invade surrounding healthy tissue. Risk factors for cancer: Cancer occurs overtime and it results from a mixture of factors related to lifestyle, heredity and environment. Listed are examples of what many cancers are related to: The use of tobacco, Things people eat and drink, Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, Exposure to Carcinogens: Cancer causing agents. Also, evidences shows that 20-30 % of cancers result from poor food choices and physical inactivity. Dietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing Cancer Risks: The American Cancer Society created guidelines to emphasize how important it is to control your weight and physical activity. Recommendations for individual Lifestyle Choices Maintain a healthful weight throughout life, Adopt a physically active lifestyle, Eat a healthy diet, with an emphasis on plant sources, If you drink alcoholic beverages, limit consumption. Reduce Cancer Risks: To reduce your cancer risk: Eat a moderately low fat diet and increase your consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
High intake of red meat and processed meats is associated with some types of colorectal cancer. There is evidence that vegetable and fruits reduce cancer risks. Diabetes Mellitus: Instead of eating carbohydrates and the pancreas immediately producing the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood to into our cells, diabetic's pancreas produces little to no insulin resulting in hyperglycemia. Common Types of Diabetes:Type 1 diabetes is known as insulin dependent diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is known as insulin resistant. Gestational diabetes develops hyperglycemia and occurs during a woman's pregnancy. Hyperglycemia is a high glucose level. Pre-diabetes is a condition in which a person's blood glucose level is higher than normal. Risk Factors : Listed below are a few risk factors of all types of diabetes.The ethnic groups mainly affected by diabetes are Latinos, Native Americans and African Americans.
Managing Diabetes: Managing diabetes is a serious process that has to be taken care of daily. When managing your lifestyle as a diabetic it is important to eat healthy, perform a physical activity daily and use insulin injections. Metabolic Syndrome: Metabolic syndrome is known as Symptoms that occur together that promote the development of coronary artery diseases. Signs of Metabolic Syndrome: There are a few different signs regarding metabolic syndrome. A couple of examples include Abdominal obesity and High fasting blood glucose.
Treatment for Metabolic Syndrome: Some examples of treatment for metabolic syndrome are to Monitor Blood Glucose, Blood Pressure and Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight and increase physical activity. Osteoporosis: Meaning porous bone. Bone mass or density declines and bone quality deteriorates. This makes the bones fragile and easier to break. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis becomes a risk in older people, people with eating disorders and early menopause. These are a few examples of risk factors listed. Dietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing Osteoporosis Risk Ways to lower the risk of Osteoporosis are exercising and adequate intake of Calcium, Vitamin A and Vitamin D.
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