Allotransplants is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species. The transplant is called an allograft, allogeneic transplant, or homograft. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts. A xenograft is a graft from a different species, such as when animal tissue is grafted into human tissue, or when human cancer cells are implanted in mice for experimental tumor studies. Allografts can be referred to as "homostatic" if they are biologically inert when transplanted, such as bone and cartilage.
An immune response against an allograft or xenograft is termed rejection. An allogenic bone marrow transplant can result in an immune attack, called Graft-versus-host disease. Procedure Informed consent is required before tissue is harvested from a donor, alive or dead. Proper screening for pathology and risk factors for communicable diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis B and C is then conducted. In the US, donor tissue must be harvested and processed adhering to the Current Good Tissue Practices rule. In most cases it is sent to tissue banks for processing and distribution. Each year, Food and Drug Administration regulated and American Association of Tissue Banks-accredited tissue banks distribute 1.5 million bone and tissue allografts. Transplantable organs and tissues A variety of organs and tissues can be used for allografts, including: Anterior cruciate ligament repair Joint reconstruction in the knee and ankle Meniscal replacement Reconstruction due to cancer or trauma Ridge augmentation in dental procedures Shoulder repair Spinal fusion Urological procedures skin transplants corneal transplants heart transplants heart valves lung transplantation Intestinal transplantation liver transplants kidney transplants pancreas transplantation islet cell transplantation bone marrow transplants bone allograft ligament or tendon allograft Laws & regulations In the US, the Federal government Food and Drug Administration has regulated human tissue intended for transplants since 1993.
In order to ensure the quality of donor tissue and reduce contamination and disease transmission risks, three regulations addressing manufacturing activities associated with human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products were promulgated in May 2005: The first requires companies producing and distributing HCT/Ps to register with the FDA. The second, called the “Donor Eligibility” rule, proscribes criteria for donor eligibility. The third, the “Current Good Tissue Practices” rule, oversees overall processing and distribution practices of each company. Other transplant options Autograft, tissue transplanted from one site to another on the same patient. An autograft reduces the risk of rejection but requires a second surgery site, adding pain, risk and possible longer aftercare. Xenograft, a transplant from another species Isograft, a transplant from a genetically identical donor, such as an identical twin. Synthetic and metal implants. Unlike allografts, such grafts do not corporate into the body.
See also Allograft diseases Medical grafting References External links ww.aatb.orgsafetyoftissuetransplants.pdf dc.govdhqp/tissueTransplantsFAQ.html#top .fda.govTissueTissueProducts/default.htm http:www.organdonor.govregistry.shtm Allogeneic stem cell transplantation entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms.
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